Press Release

05 June 2021

The Arrow of Energy - "One-Way Entanglement Between Isolated Energies".

21st Century Physics Reveals Itself, Clearly, Strongly and Beautifully; 

Time taken in stocking energy to build an energy system, adding to it the time taken in building the system will always be longer than the entire useful lifetime of the system. 

No energy system can produce sum useful energy in excess of the total energy put into constructing it.

This universal truth applies to all energy systems.

Energy, like time, only flows from past to future.

The Fifth Law of Thermodynamics and The Arrow of Energy, proposed 2017.


20 July 2019

The Arrow of Energy - "Energy, like time, flows from past to future".

A thermodynamics thought experiment for the modern-age Physics;

Take two backup generators of the same grade and quality – one rated at 5 kW, and the other 30 kW.

An unlimited fuel supply is provided for both generators.

The 5 kW generator will cease functioning well before the sum total of useful work it produces matches the total energy generated by the 30 kW unit during its lifetime.

Why so, given the unlimited fuel supply available to both generators, which makes them truly open systems?

It is not the fuel supplied to an energy-generating device that limits the sum useful energy produced, but rather the total energy expended in constructing it.

As the 30 kW generator consumed more energy in its construction than the smaller 5 kW unit, the smaller generator cannot match the sum useful work of the larger device.

No energy system can produce sum useful energy in excess of the total energy put into constructing it.

This universal truth applies to all energy systems.

Energy, like time, only flows from past to future.

The Fifth Law of Thermodynamics and The Arrow of Energy, proposed 2017.


 Press Release

08 April 2018

"No device can generate energy in excess of the total energy put into constructing it".

The Fifth Law

The Fifth Law, written by Farkad Al Wattar and published in 2017, suggests the existence of an extra, yet overlooked, relationship in thermodynamics. 

What’s missing?

The Second Law of Thermodynamics does not specify when a machine, such as that epitomised in 1824 by the French military engineer and physicist Sadi Carnot as a ‘heat engine’, will cease functioning at the end of its useful life. Carnot’s formulation of the Second Law allowed for a heat engine to run indefinitely when provided with sufficient fuel.

Filling the gap: the Fifth Law – nature as an energy vessel

The proposed Fifth Law is an extension of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. It postulates that, as a result of wear and tear, a machine will cease functioning as the sum of all the useful energy produced approaches the total energy expended in its construction.

Due to their smarter designs, complex logic and mechanisms, stronger and more durable materials, and finer precision, energy-generating machines of a higher grade will perform better and produce useful work for a longer period. Taken together, however, these features require more energy input. This is why the total energy expended in constructing an energy-generating device correlates closely with the sum total of useful energy produced.

A universal, prosaic truth of the Second Law of Thermodynamics is that decay is inevitable. An energy-producing device will never have enough material integrity to prevent its ultimate destruction by wear and tear (entropy). Also, no matter how efficient its operation, the device will never produce more energy than the total entropy-generating work expended in its construction.

Entropy internal to matter

Drive a new car, ignore the manufacturer’s instructions on changing the engine oil, and the engine will rapidly degrade and fail. When that point is reached, the total energy expended in building the vehicle is in vain, as the vehicle is rendered useless, unable to do any more useful work. This is true even though virtually all the material components of the engine remain in place.

Such material obsolescence is an indication of how little of the energy expended in construction may be translated into a capacity for generating useful work. This applies regardless of the amount of fuel consumed in running the device, the future availability of fuel, or the engine’s operational efficiency.

One-way energy entanglement

Despite drawing on two entirely different pools of energy resources – one to construct an energy-generating device (Em), and the other to fuel it – the sum total of useful energy produced by a device (Eu) will always be constrained by the total energy expended earlier in constructing it.

Eu < Em

The two energy parameters are thus one-way entangled.

How can it be that these seemingly independent energies, isolated in both material and time, have become entangled? The likely answer is entropy internal to matter. The quality or grade of a device is determined by the total amount of energy expended in its construction (Em), and it is this which allows for the device to survive for longer (cf. Eu). As the ticking of a clock is the same for all matter, the amount of energy expended in device construction remains the driving variable in this relationship. The phenomenon is a universal across all energy-producing devices.

The Fifth Law Time Limit

The Fifth Law also proposes that the time taken in stocking energy to build an energy-producing device added to the time taken to build the device will always be longer than the entire useful lifetime of the device. 

Efficiency of Human-Run Processes

The Fifth Law proposes that no human-run processes, whether industrial or otherwise, will exceed the <=2% efficiency of living plants when they internally converting solar energy into useful work. This could explain why the astronomical solar and geological energy, stored in fossil fuels reserves over hundreds of millions of years, have vanished so quickly in a mere 300 years since the Industrial Revolution.




 Press Release

06 October 2017

"No device can generate energy in excess of the total energy put into constructing it".

A newly proposed law in Thermodynamics and claimed to be as fundamental as Gravity, is now opened for debate and validation.

Past fossil fuels abundance might have buried the potentially new law underneath vast crude reserves for the last two hundred years.

Farkad Al Wattar, a researcher at New Middle East Pty Ltd, who outlined his ‘One-way entanglement between isolated energies’ thesis in a newly published book titled, The Fifth Law, believes ‘the law should have come soon after Sadi Carnot coined the 2nd law of Thermodynamics back in 1824. That would have changed History’.

The thesis is thought easy to understand by the general public and it may prove one of the most fundamental natural laws for humans, equally common and just as important in day-to-day life as Gravity.

For physicists, scientists, technologists and researchers, the proposal claims Entropy intricately dictates the amount of energy required to construct an energy-generating device.

This results in a far-reaching constraint that limits how much useful energy a device can ever generate through its useful life.

Despite the only formula the proposal introduces is as simple as Eu < Em, short-enough to be seen printed on any T-shirt, Al Wattar believes the newly proposed relationship in physics could be ‘the harshest among all thermodynamics laws known to man’.

The book also proposes a 2nd-generation, self-growing renewable energy platform, the Sun Road, imagined to be built between what the renowned Stanford University Historian Ian Morris calls, the ‘lucky latitudes’, extending to Australia.

Sun Road is envisioned to re-establish Earth’s carrying capacity in post fossil fuels era, capable to provide all the energy required for the completion, initiation and empowering of Fusion Energy reactors, as well as the production of renewable liquid fuels necessary for transportation.

The book is the first-ever publication self-ranking itself as ‘the most read aboard Start Trek’s Enterprise spaceship’, an indication on how it may refuel a revisit to the theory of Society, Science, Technology, Economy, Philosophy, Politics, Literature and Arts in the wake of the discovery of the new law.

The proposal is effectively a demonstration of how first-generation self-funded Internet researchers have started lending hands in support for Science.

The book is available at: and


New Middle East Pty Ltd is Sydney, Australia based research and simulation software development company founded in 2008. The business is the proud sponsor of Al Wattar’s The Fifth Law, which is part of its Sun Road™ project.